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IN DEPTH: Top Ten Wine Producing Countries
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Top Ten Wine Producing Countries
By Morgan Brandy

1499776212 0 vino prigotveno v domashni usloviq 2556      了解市场经济学的朋友一定听说过帕雷托法则,它告诉我们,80%的销售都来源于20%的顾客。这大概和10%的美国人拥有90%的财富一个意思。用于葡萄酒产地,这一理论也可以完美契合——百分之八十的葡萄酒都来源于以下几个国家和地区:意大利、法国、西班牙、美国、澳大利亚、阿根廷、中国、南非、智利、德国、葡萄牙、俄罗斯、罗马尼亚、巴西、匈牙利。

      我们都知道法国以葡萄酒闻名世界,但是殊不知意大利才是世界第一大葡萄酒出口国。意大利以其葡萄酒的高产量闻名于世,而且葡萄酒种类繁多,超过2,400种。与法国原产地命名保护制度(AOP)类似,意大利也有自己的葡萄酒分级体系,对产地、品种、种植方法和酿造方法等方面作出了要求。巴罗洛(Barolo)被称为意大利葡萄酒之王,产自于意大利西北部的皮埃蒙特(Pimonte)产区。巴巴莱斯科(Barbaresco) 与巴罗洛(Barolo)是兄弟产区,其葡萄品种也是内比奥罗(Nebbiolo),较为细致高雅。 1981年Barolo和Barbaresco成为全意大利最早的DOCG级葡萄酒法定产区。


      法国是世界著名的葡萄酒产地,其生产葡萄酒的历史悠久。法国最古老的超一级酒庄是吕萨吕斯酒堡。法国法律将法国葡萄酒分为4级:法定产区葡萄酒、优良地区餐酒、地区餐酒、日常餐酒。其中,法定产区葡萄酒占全部产量的35%,优良地区餐酒占22%,地区餐酒为15%,日常餐酒为38%。法国葡萄酒之所以最好,是因为法国在葡萄品种、气候、土壤、湿度、葡萄园管理和酿酒技术上述决定葡萄酒好坏的6大因素上具备天赐优厚的条件。


      中国有着广阔的适合生产酿酒葡萄的区域,气候条件也较为合适,即使在新疆吐鲁番高至45度的高温中,或通化低至- 40度的低温中,也能种植出绝佳的葡萄。据记载,真正可查的关于中国葡萄酒的文字记载是在汉武帝时期——张骞出使西域归来的时候,我国的葡萄种植与酿造业已经开始了规模性发展,但是随着汉朝的衰败,葡萄酒产业也衰落了一段时间,直到魏晋南北朝时期,才又逐渐发展起来。唐朝是葡萄酒的成熟时期,唐太宗李世民曾写过一首诗,赞赏魏征的葡萄酒酿造技艺;之后,葡萄酒经过了宋朝和元朝的发展,达到了鼎盛时期。目前根据国际葡萄与葡萄酒组织的最新数据显示,我国的葡萄种植总面积在2000年至2011年间,几乎增长了一倍,该数据同样证明了,自世纪之交以来,我国已成为全球第六大葡萄酒生产国。


As with many other phenomena, wine production in the world is subject to the power law, or in other words, the Pareto principle. Only 10 countries produce 80% of the wine supplied around the world. Italy, France, and Spain are the leading countries in terms of total production, in respective order. But the picture would be different if the vineyard acreage was considered, as Spain would top the list instead of Italy.
 

Italy
BT 201806 In depth italyAccording to 2016 statistics, Italy topped the list of global wine producers with production of 48.4 million hectoliters produced (or 50.9 million hectoliters according to other estimates). In 2017, worldwide production dropped including that in Italy, as it produced 39.3 mhl. The reason for the decline was the large-scale damage suffered by the buds of vines, due to frost and following draughts that affected the region. In general, climate change affected the biggest wine producing countries in the world and thus it hampered global production, but a gradual return to normal levels of production is expected in this year, given that the damage was not so severe so as to kill many vines.


On an average, Italy contributes to a third of global production per year. It contains the oldest wine producing regions in the world and produces a rich variety of wines. Quality of Italian wine kept the demand for it soaring even during the times when production was at its lowest. Barolo and Barbaresco are amongst the most desired brands of Italian wine.
 

France
BT 201806 In depth franceFrance’s wine production was also affected due to high temperatures, as it dropped from 45.2 mhl in 2016 to 36.7 in mhl. The country is famous for its many wine regions such as Bordeaux, Beaujolais, Burgundy, and Alsace. However, wine is produced all over the country. France is known for its high grade red and white wines, not to mention the sparkling wine, Champagne.
 

Spain
BT 201806 In depth spainWith more than 1.7 million hectares of planted land, Spain is among the top wine producing countries in the world. Quality of Spanish wine has improved significantly with time, as it moved from commercial wine production to a more sophisticated quality of wine, such as the one produced in regions like Priorat, Montsant, and Mallorca. Still, wine lovers can choose from among different levels of quality as there is a wide variety of brands by different producers, such as Valdemar Inspiración Valdemar Maturana Tinta, Torres Mas La Plana, and Compañía de Vinos Telmo Rodríguez Altos de Lanzaga.
 

The United States
BT 201806 In depth usThe United States ranks fourth on the list. The country is known for its very ancient history of producing wine, going back more than 300 years. Wine production in the US has remained steady over the last years, averaging around 22-23 million hectoliters. Previously, only a few states were famous for producing wine, namely California, Washington, Oregon, and New York. But today, there are vineyards in just about every state, although the old ones still maintain some lead over the others. Among the famous brands are Beringer California Cabernet Sauvignon, Morgan Metallico Chardonnay, and A to Z Oregon Pinot Gris 2013.
 

Australia
BT 201806 In depth ausAustralia is among the world’s top ten producers, albeit that its production is less than its rivals, averaging around 12 million hectoliters per year. This, however, does not say much about the wide variety of wines there, produced by both established and new producers. Henschke Shiraz Eden Valley Hill of Grace Vineyard 2012 is considered the top vineyard wine produced in Australia, although there are other equally important brands, such as Sami-Odi, and Yarra-Vally.
 

Argentina
BT 201806 In depth argIn recent years, Argentina has been rising as one of the major global exporters of wine. On an average, the country produces about 13 million hectoliters, albeit that its production declined in 2016 and 2017. The main wine producing regions in the country include Mendoza, Salta, Neuquén, Río Negro, Catamarca, La Rioja and San Juan. And the top grape is Malbec. Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Bonarda, are other high quality brands of red wine.
 

China
BT 201806 In depth ChinaAs consumption in China grew, so did wine imports to the country, which attracted attention and encouraged local production, thus increasing the country’s production and helping it to rise in the global wine market. The main wine regions are Shandong province, Hebei Province, Beijing, Tianjin, and Shanxi province. And the average annual production of the country is 11 million hectoliters.
 

South Africa
BT 201806 In depth southWine production in South Africa goes back four centuries. However, it is still considered as a newcomer to the wine market given its way of labeling the bottles. Due to the country’s hot climate, the grapes ripe fully and produce high alcohol wines. Production is mostly concentrated in the southwestern part of the country which is called the Western Cape. Among the famous wines are Sauvignon Blanc, Chenin Blanc, and Pinotage.
 

Chile
BT 201806 In depth chileWine production in Chile goes way back in time, as the Spanish and the French had brought their variety of wines into the country a few decades ago. Today, the country produces around 10 million hectoliters per year. Famous brands include Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay, Carménère, and Pinot Noir.
 

Germany
BT 201806 In depth germanyThe European country produces around 9 million hectoliters annually and is ranked tenth in terms of global production. Among the top brands are Riesling 'La Roche' 2013, Spätburgunder Blanc de Noir 2014, and Grauburgunder 2014. Due to the German climate, German wine has a distinct light and lively taste that is different from other wines. Most of the wine is produced in the south or southwestern part of the country. Among the most famous regions are Ahr, Franken, and Hessische Bergstraße.
 

The above countries represent main global wine producers, but the list is far from being exhaustive. Other countries like Russia, Portugal, and Romania also produce wines from different grapes and are preferred by many wine tasters. Global wine consumption remains strong and is projected to reach a value of $224.5 billion by 2021, with China and Russia as the leading sources of demand.

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