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IPR: IPR Protection in China for the Creative Industries: Know Before You Go
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China's rapidly expanding consumer market creates both opportunities and challenges for European businesses in creative industries. Ideas and designs are the lifeblood of creative businesses and infringement can be particularly costly and damaging. Because creative ideas and designs that are not adequately protected can often fall victim to infringement by potential Chinese clients or Chinese competitors, European businesses are sometimes reluctant to enter the China market and build relationships with Chinese partners. However, by effectively using the Chinese IP system and taking a few key steps, you can protect your company’s IP and foster successful partnerships in China.
There are three key IP issues often faced by creative businesses in various sub-sectors of the creative industry in China including- in architectural design, product design, graphic design, web-design, brand design, photography and cinematography, writing, etc. They are copyright, industrial designs and trade secrets.
As in Europe, copyright in China arises automatically upon the creation of a copyrightable work. Copyrightable works include architectural or engineering drawings, works of fine art, applied art, literary works, music or sound recordings, dramatic or cinematic works, compilations and software. It is important to remember that copyright protects only the expression of an idea, not the idea itself.
China also allows you to voluntarily register your copyright. Copyright registration is presumptive evidence of ownership if you wish to enforce your copyright and greatly reduces the preparation of evidence. Copyright registration in China is inexpensive, easy and generally recommended.  
altUnlike in many other countries, in China the scope of protection of the copyright in a two-dimensional drawing does not extend to three-dimensional applications. For example, copyright in a two-dimensional architectural design does not extend to the actual building based on the design. To fill in this gap in protection, your contract should clearly state that the copyright of any three-dimensional applications based on your two-dimensional designs belong to you.
When creating works for others or commissioning others to create works for you, make sure that your contract clearly states who owns the copyrights to the works.  In China, the commissioned party owns the copyright to the works unless the contract states otherwise.
In addition to using copyright as a form of protection, it is also equally important to make sure that you do not infringe upon another's copyright such as when using someone else’s work. For example, this can happen when you use someone else's photographs on the Internet without permission within your project proposal. It is important to obtain the permission of the copyright owner when using someone else’s work.
Industrial Designs
Industrial designs protect the aesthetic features (shape, pattern, colour etc) of industrial products.  Industrial designs are protected as design patents in China and must be registered.  Designs registered in a foreign country do not enjoy protection in China. To qualify for protection, a design cannot be an existing design and must be sufficiently distinguishable from other designs. Currently, it takes approximately 9 months to 1 year to obtain a design patent in China.  A design patent gives you the exclusive right to use or allow others to use your design in China for 10 years.  
You cannot register an existing design, including your own existing design, which means you have 6 months from the date you first publicly use the design, publish the design to apply for a design patent or file an international patent application. Therefore, it is strongly recommended that you consider whether or not you wish to seek design patent protection for your design before you publicly use or publish it.
In some cases, if an industrial design exhibits a high-degree of creativity and its aesthetic elements can exist separately from the functional features of the design, it can also be protected as a copyrightable work. For example, a design for a lamp with a statue base enjoys copyright protection as to the statute base. It is important to know whether or not your design can be protected as a work of applied art so that you can take proper measures to protect it. Most industrial designs do not enjoy copyright protection as works of applied art and can only be protected as industrial designs.
Trade Secrets
In China, a trade secret is any non-public information of commercial value that is treated as confidential. Trade secrets include undisclosed designs, sketches, concepts, models, project proposals, customer lists, supplier lists, price lists, contractual terms, business operational methods, contact lists, internal emails, business strategy or initiatives, negotiations, etc. However, trade secrets protection is lost as soon as the information becomes public. Measures to ensure confidentiality include the use of confidentiality agreements tied to disclosure, non-disclosure agreements with employees, use of passwords, marking of documents as confidential, etc.
Prevention is the key to protecting trade secrets. Although legal action is available, it is often difficult and not always feasible to prevent the dissemination of sensitive information once it has been disclosed. It is a good practice to periodically catalogue what potentially valuable trade secrets you may have so that proper precautions can be taken.
Most cases involving the theft of trade secrets involve former employees or potential clients. It is important that you require all employees to sign an employment agreement with non-disclosure provisions and, if necessary, non-competitive provisions. It is also important that you limit access to certain valuable information to only certain employees with a need to know and to conduct exit interviews.
It is also a good practice to insist that third parties, including potential clients or suppliers, sign a confidentiality agreement before you start negotiations or transfer documents. Sometimes, however, a potential client may refuse to sign a confidentiality agreement because they may consider such a request as ’hostile’. In these instances, insist, but if they continue to refuse, it is important that you only disclose very preliminary work product such as simple rough sketches or previous designs which you do not consider to be operational or of high value.
Preventative Measures for the Protection of IP
Although there are effective legal and administrative remedies for IP infringement in China, cost-effective protection of creative ideas and designs in China generally requires a combination of knowledge, prevention and business savvy. Preventative strategies for the protection of IP generally include:
1. Registration of IP
2. Contractual protection
3. Preventative operating measures
Your IP is protected when properly registered. Industrial designs, invention patents, utility models and trademarks must all be registered for them to be protected in China.  Although copyrights do not need to be registered, registration is useful in the event that you need to enforce your copyrights. It is important to have a plan in place to determine which IP you will register and to take proper measures for IP you will not register.
In addition to or in lieu of registered IP rights, you can protect your IP contractually by ensuring that your contract clearly stipulates the ownership of the IP and contains proper confidentiality provisions. However, contractual protection is only available after negotiations have matured to a point whereby a contract can be negotiated. In lieu of a full contract, insist on having a confidentiality agreement before negotiations start or documents are transferred.
Finally, business savvy and employing preventative operating measures can go a long way in ensuring that your IP is protected. It is important to draw a line prior to negotiations on how far you are willing to skirt on IP protections so that you know when to walk away from a potential business opportunity. Protecting your IP may require you to forgo certain opportunities. This may be extremely difficult, particularly for small creative businesses, but a potential client who is not willing to recognise your desire to protect your IP is also the client who is most likely to steal your IP or not pay you for your work.
Often in the early preliminary stages or at the bid soliciting stage, potential clients will insist that you submit full conceptual designs and three-dimensional renderings. In such circumstances, it is understandably difficult to insist on confidentiality measures. It is at this point where registering your IP and thoroughly documenting the transfer of documents is critical. Although circumstances will vary in each instance, you may also wish to try to meet your potential clients face-to-face in order to get a feeling of their professionalism and to develop a personal relationship, show them only preliminary sketches of ideas, ask for payment upfront or in increments based on performance targets, seek references from colleagues or acquaintances, or ask them to visit you at your business premises to be shown your full conceptual designs or three-dimensional renderings.
Takeaway message
altThough seemingly daunting, with a few simple preventative steps and appropriate registration of rights, your creative work can be adequately protected in China. Remember these key points:
• Use preventative measures: don’t wait to take action. Most of the steps described above should be taken before entering the Chinese market. If you wait until a problem arises, there is a chance that it will already be too late to take action.
• Use the system: register your IP in China. China has a robust, effective IP enforcement system. Registered IP should include copyrights and design patents, as well as others such as invention patents and trademarks.
• Use contracts: protect your business from the inside out. Include contracts and agreements with all involved parties, including employees, partners and clients to properly protect your trade secrets.
If you have further questions about formulating a tailored IP protection strategy for your business or your creative work, please direct them at This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it . Your enquiry will be treated with the strictest confidence and will be answered within seven working days by one of our China IP experts.
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